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2004 World Technology Awards Winners & Finalists

Carlos Pacheco

Please describe the work that you are doing that you consider to be the most innovative and of the greatest likely long-term significance.

I believe that the most important and innovative work and the greatest likely long-term significance that I did was contribute to reform the Brazilian’s innovation system during the years 1999-2002. In this period I was Deputy Minister of Science and Technology of Brazil. With a very good collaborative team we made a great reform in the National Innovation System (NIS). These reforms implied:

a) the creation of 14 ‘sectoral funds’ for finance S&T development, with tripartite management by the academic community, government, and industry; in the areas: aeronautics, agriculture, biotechnology, energy, health, hydrology, informatics, infrastructure, minerals, petroleum, space sciences, telecommunications, transportation, and university-industry research. b) the organization of 5 previous regional conferences and a National Conference about Science, Technology and Innovation, where more than 1,200 participants from the academy, industry and government discussed priorities to public policies; c) the publication of the most exhaustive green report about Brazilian’s NIS, that was discussed at the National Conference and after all culminated with the publication of a White Book; d) the reform of the national agency for technology development and innovation (FINEP), that focused its operational policies to support R&D’s private sector, and improve its corporate governance, contract new staff and change all administrative routines of this agency; e) the creation of a new division in FINEP to improve national venture initiatives, that culminated with many business rounds (start-up and venture capitalists) and the creation of a private venture national association; f) the evaluation of the missions statements of all the National’s Researches Institutes, and, for the first time in Brazilian’s NIS, the definition of a formal framework that identifies priorities missions and sets policies for these Institutes; g) the creation of a National Secretary (in the S&T Ministry) to improve planning, managing, and coordinating the National’s Researches Institutes; and the transformation of 5 Institutes in Public-Private Institutes, supported by government, but with more flexibility and formal goals; h) the introduction of ‘innovation’ in the core of S&T public policies, with a great emphasis in public-private cooperation; i) the creation of new incentives for private sector expenses in R&D (Laws 10.332/01 and 10.637/02) that permit applied resources to reduce interest rates for official agencies and reduce income tax for R&D activities that result in patents; j) the establishment of a regional agenda for S&T in Brazil that support circa 100 local innovation systems and local cooperative clusters; k) a more interactive approach for S&T that reduce the distance between Ministry and others areas of government; l) a great emphasis in actions to improve the NIS and cooperative approaches, that culminated in an Innovation Law (submitted to National Congress at 2002), with many institutional innovations to improve firms-university’s interactions and new public-private arrangements; m) the creation of a new national public-private organization, the Management and Strategic Studies Center, to support more strategic actions and coordinate technological forecast for Brazilian’s NIS.

Recently, the InterAcademy Council described part of this reform: “One of the most imaginative ideas in this vein is a family of ‘sectoral’ funds, redirected corporate taxes that implement a national strategic policy to promote high-quality research and development in a country’s industries. Such funds, as one now functioning in Brazil, require close interaction of the indigenous academic community, private sector, and government in creating it, setting its priorities, and managing it. Decisions are all jointly made on the selection of strategic sectors, their respective shares of the fund’s resources, the blend of basic and applied research, the required overall budget, and sources of support.” (Inventing a better future, InterAcademy Council, January 2004, IAC Report, http://www.interacademycouncil.net/)

Brief Biography

Education PhD (1996) and MSc (1988) in Economy, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Brazil. Electronic Engineer, Aeronautic Technological Institute - ITA, 1.979, Brazil.

Honors and Awards Brazilian National Order of Scientific Merit, Grand Master, 2.000. Brazilian National Order of Rio Branco, Grand Officer, 2.000. Brazilian National Order of Aeronautic Merit, Commentator, 2.000. Awards of Brazilian National Association of Urban and Regional Planning, for the PhD thesis, 1.998.

Teaching Experience Professor, Economy Institute, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 1988 to present: Economic Planning, Macroeconomics, Economic Theory, Regional Development. Professor, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Araraquara, 1983 to 1988: Macroeconomics, Economic Theory, Statistics.

Government Experience Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, Brazil National Government, 1.998-2.002. President of FINEP’s Board of Directors – Brazilian Agency for Innovations, 1.999-2003.

Research Visitor Scholar at the Center of Brazilian Studies, University of Columbia, 2004-2005. Institute of Economy, UNICAMP – industrial and technological policies and regional and urban development (1.988 to the present);

Publications (books) “Fragmentação da Nação”, Ed. IE/UNICAMP, Campinas, 1998. “Dinâmica Demográfica Regional e as Novas Questões Populacionais no Brasil”, Pacheco, Carlos A., Patarra, N. (orgs.), "Dinâmica Demográfica Regional e as Novas Questões Populacionais no Brasil", Ed. IE/UNICAMP, Campinas, 2.000. “Caracterização e Tendência da Rede Urbana do Brasil”, IPEA/IBGE/NESUR, Brasília, 2002. “As Reformas da Política Nacional de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação no Brasil (1.999 – 2.002)”, Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean, – ECLAD, Santiago, 2.003.